Routing Protocols overview

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An Ad hoc protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing devices in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

(The following page provides information on Ad hoc protocols implementations)

Note that in a wider context, an ad hoc protocol can also mean an improvised and often impromptu protocol established for a particular specific purpose.

The following is a list of some ad-hoc network protocols:

Important: Most Protocols are out of date, since the Draft mechanism at has a lifetime of six months. (Quote: Unrevised documents placed in the Internet-Drafts directories have a maximum life of six months.) In order to get the appropriate files try and/or The Internet Wayback Machine

Another source may be:

Pro-active: (Table-driven)

  • CGSR (Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing protocol) - Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing protocol (CGSR) [Murthy96] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks", ACM Mobile Networks and App. J., Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, Oct. 1996, pp. 183-97.
  • DSDV (Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector routing protocol) - C. E. PERKINS, P. BHAGWAT Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DTDV) for Mobile Computers Proc. of the SIGCOMM 1994 Conference on Communications Architectures, Protocols and Applications, Aug 1994, pp 234-244.
  • OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) - PHILIPPE JACQUET, PAUL MUHLETHALER, AMIR QAYYUM, ANIS LAOUITI, LAURENT VIENNOT, THOMAS CLAUSEN Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Internet Draft, RFC 3626. 19-Nov-98
  • TBRPF (Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding routing protocol) - BHARGAV BELLUR, RICHARD G. OGIER, FRED L. TEMPLIN Topology Broadcast Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF) Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-01.txt, work in progress, June 2001. RFC 3684 .

Reactive: (On-demand)

  • ARA (Ant-based Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks) - Mesut Günes et. al., ARA - the ant-colony based routing algorithm for manets, In Stephan Olariu, editor, Proceedings of the 2002 ICPP Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks (IWAHN 2002), pages 79-85, IEEE Computer Society Press, August 2002,
  • AODV 20 November 1997 (00 draft) (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector routing protocol) - C. PERKINS, E.ROYER AND S. DAS Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, work in progress, Aug 2002. RFC 3561,.
  • BSR (Backup Source Routing protocol) - SONG GUO, OLIVER W. YANG Performance of Backup Source Routing (BSR) in mobile ad hoc networks p 440-444, Proc. 2002 IEEE Wireless Networking Conference
  • DSR 00: 16-Mar-98 (Dynamic Source Routing protocol) - D. JOHNSON, D. MALTZ, Y-C. HU AND J. JETCHEVA: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-10.txt, work in progress, July 2004. RFC 4728.
  • GB (Gafni-Bertsekas), E. Gafni, D. Bertsekas: Distributed Algorithms for Generating Loop-free Routes in Networks with Frequently Changing Topology, IEEE Transactions on Communication, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan, 1981, pp.11-15. The first Link Reversal Routing (LRR) algorithm.
  • MOR (Multipath On-demand Protocol) Shu Hui Chen. Multipath on-demand routing in sensor network topologies. Master thesis, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of Hawaii at M¯anoa, May 2003.
  • TORA 00 Draft: 02-Dec-97 (Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm routing protocol) - V. PARK, S. CORSON TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM (TORA) VERSION 1 Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-04.txt, work in progress, July 2001. A Link Reversal Routing (LRR) algorithm.
  • PLBR (Preferred link based routing)-- R. S. Sisodia, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "A Preferred Link Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 14-21, March 2002.


  • DART (Dynamic Address Routing) - JAKOB ERIKSSON, MICHALIS FALOUTSOS, SRIKANTH KRISHNAMURTHY Scalable Ad Hoc Routing: The Case for Dynamic Addressing, in proceedings of INFOCOM 2004. Project website
  • DDR (Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm) - NAVID NIKAEIN, HOUDA LABIOD, CHRISTIAN BONNET Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm (DDR) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in proceedings of the MobiHOC 2000 : First Annual Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing
  • GSR (Global State Routing protocol) - Global State Routing protocol (GSR) [Iwata99] A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks" IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Aug. 1999, pp.1369-79.
  • FSR (Fisheye State Routing protocol) - MARIO GERLA, GUANGYU PEI, XIAOYAN HONG, TSU-WEI CHEN Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) for Ad Hoc Networks Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-fsr-03.txt, work in progress, June 2002.
  • HARP (Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol) - NAVID NIKAEIN, CHRISTIAN BONNET, NEDA NIKAEIN Hybrid Ad Hoc Routing Protocol - HARP, in proceeding of IST 2001: International Symposium on Telecommunications


  • DREAM (Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility) - S. BASAGNI, I. CHLAMTAC, V. R. SYROTIUK, B. A. WOODWARD A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 76-84, October 1998.
  • GLS(Grid) (Geographic Location Service) - JINYANG LI, JOHN JANOTTI, DOUGLAS S. J. DE COUTU, DAVID R. KARGER, ROBERT MORRIS A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science
  • LAR (Location-Aided Routing protocol) - Y.-B. KO, V. N. H. Location-Aided Routing in mobile Ad hoc networks In Proc. ACM/IEEE Mobicom, pages 66-75, October 1998.
  • GPSAL (GPS Ant-Like Routing Algorithm) - Daniel Câmara, Antonio Alfredo F. Loureiro, A Novel Routing Algorithm for Hoc Networks, Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, 18:1-3, 85-100, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
  • ZHLS (Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing) - JOA NG, I-TAI LU Zone-Based Hierchical Link State Routing (ZHLS). An abstract routing protocol and medium access protocol for mobile ad hoc networks Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy (Electrical engineering) in January 1999.
  • GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) - BRAD N. KARP, H. T. KUNG GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the sixth annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '00), pages 243-254, August 2000.

Power aware:

  • ISAIAH (Infra-Structure Aodv for Infrastructured Ad Hoc networks) - ANDERS LINDGREN AND OLOV SCHELÉN Infrastructured ad hoc networks In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (International Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN 2002)). pages 64-70. August 2002.


  • ABAM (On-Demand Associativity-Based Multicast) - C.-K TOH, G. GUICHAL, AND S. BUNCHUA On-demand associativity-based multicast routing for ad hoc mobile networks (ABAM), Vehicular Technology Conference, 2000. IEEE VTS Fall VTC 2000. 52nd, Volume: 3, 2000, Page(s): 987 -993 vol.3
  • AMRIS (Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol utilising Increasing id-numbers) - C.W. WU AND Y.C. TAY Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol utilizing Increasing id-numbers (AMRIS) In Proceedings of IEEE MILCOM'99, Atlantic City, NJ, Nov. 1999. draft-ietf-manet-amris-spec-00.txt
  • DCMP (Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol - S. K. Das, B. S. Manoj, and C. S. R. Murthy, "Dynamic Core Based Multicast Routing Protocol", In Proc. ACM Mobihoc 2002, June 2002.
  • CAMP (Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol) - J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-ACEVES AND E.L. MADRUGA The Core Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP), IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 1380-1394, August 1999.
  • CBM (Content Based Multicast) - H. ZHOU AND S. SINGH Content Based Multicast (CBM) in Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Workshop on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MOBIHOC), Boston, MA, August 2000, pp. 5160. 260
  • FGMP 1998 (Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol) - CHIANG, GERLA, ZHANG 1998 Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP)
  • LAM (Lightweight Adaptive Multicast protocol) - L. JI AND M.S. CORSON Lightweight Adaptive Multicast protocol (LAM), In Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'98, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 1998
  • MCEDAR (Multicast CEDAR) - SINHA AND BHARGHAVAN Multicast core extraction distributed ad-hoc routing (MCEDAR). In Proc. of the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1999.

Geographical Multicast (Geocasting):

  • LBM (Location Based Multicast) - Y.KO AND VAIDYA 1998 Location Based Multicast (LBM)
  • GeoGRID (Geographical GRID (see GLS)) - WEN-HWA LIAO AND JANG-PING SHEU AND YU-CHEE TSENG GeoGRID & Geographical GRID: A Fully Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Telecommunication Systems 2001,volume 18, number 1-3, pages 37-60
  • GeoTORA (Geographical TORA (see TORA)) - Y. KO AND N. VAIDYA A protocol for geocasting in mobile ad hoc networks (GeoTORA) Tech. Rep. 00-010, Dept. of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, March 2000. 23
  • MRGR (Mesh-Based Geocast Routing) - BOLENG, CAMP AND TOLETY 2001 Mesh-Based Geocast Routing (MRGR)


  • FQMM (Flexible QoS Model for MANET) - H. XIAO, WINSTON K.G. SEAH, A. LO and K.C. CHUA, A Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In the proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 15-18 May 2000, Tokyo, Japan, pp445-449. Available from:
  • Terminode Routing which is the combination of two routing methods namely Termode local routing and Terminode Remote Routing

taken from (GNU FDL) EN.Wikipedia:Ad_hoc_protocol_list Original Edit History