Asynchronous Messaging

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  • Performance
    • no need to block when performing a request
    • fire-and-forget
  • Reliability
    • middleman
    • guaranteed delivery possible
  • Support for multiple senders and receivers


  • Java Message Service (JMS)
    • vendor-neutral API to access enterprise messaging systems
  • Message-Driven Beans
    • stateless, server-side, transaction-aware components for processing asynchronous messages

Java Message Service (JMS)


  • JMS client: applications that use JMS
  • JMS provider: messaging system which is responsible for sending and routing of the messages
  • JMS application: business system which consists of several clients and usually one provider
  • MessageProducer: JMS client that sends messages
  • MessageConsumer: JMS client that receives messages
  • Messaging Service: is used to send messages from within EJB

Messaging Models


  • Publish/Subscribe: several producers --> Topic --> several consumers
  • Point-To-Point: several producers --> Queue --> one consumer


  • Locate the JMS driver: ConnectionFactory
  • Create a JMS connection: Connection
  • Create a JMS session: Session
  • Locate the JMS destination: Destination (Queue/ Topic)
  • Create JMS producer or consumer: MessageProducer/MessageConsumer
  • Send or reveice message

JMS Message

  • header: routing information, attributes
  • properties: used for filtering (name-value pairs)
  • body: the message
    • types: TextMessage, MapMessage, ObjectMessage, StreamMessage, ByteMessage

Deployment Descriptor

  • declare a JMS resource
    • EJB 2.0
      • <resource-ref>: JNDI ENC name, interface type and protocol for authorisation (e.g. name=jms/TopicFactroy, type=javax.jms.TopicConnectionFactory, auth=Container)
      • <resoucre-env-ref>: name and type of the managed objects (e.g. name=jms/TicketTopic and type=javax.jms.Topic)
    • EJB 2.1
      • <message-destination-ref>: destination of the messages and usage (Produces, Consumes, ConsumesProduces)


TopicConnection tConnection=null;
TopicSession tSession=null;
TopicPublisher tPublisher=null;
 TopicConnectionFactory tConnectionFac=
 Topic topic=(Topic)Lookup.lookup(„TestTopic“); 
 String text=“Message“;
 Message message=tSession.createTextMessage(text);
} catch (JMSException jes){ ...
} finally {
 // close()

Message Driven Beans


  • does not have a home interface, local home interface, remote interface, local interface
  • single, weakly typed business method (onMessage())
  • do not have any return values
  • cannot send exceptions back to clients
  • are stateless
  • can be durable or nondurable subscribers

Life Cycle


Message Driven Bean Interface

package javax.ejb;
public interface MessageDrivenBean extends javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean{
 public void setMessageDrivenContext(MessageDrivenContext context)
  throws EJBException;
  public void ejbRemove() throws EJBException;

Message Driven Context

  • extends EJBContext
  • only setRollbackOnly(), getRollbackOnly() make sense
  • getEJBHome() and getEJBLocalHome() throw a RuntimeException if invoked
  • getCallerPrincipal() and isCallerInRole() throw a RuntimeException if invoked

Message Listener

package javax.jms;
public interface MessageListener {
 public void onMessage(Message message); 

Deployment Descriptor

  • EJB 2.0
    • declared in <message-driven>; ejb-name, ejb-class, transaction-type as session or entity bean
    • <message-selector>: select which messages are processed
    • <acknowledge-mode>: e.g. auto-acknowledge, dups-ok-acknowledge
    • <subscription-durability>: durable or not (messages are delivered later on if a consumer is disconnected or not)
    • <message-driven-destination>: type of destination (Topic/Queue)
  • EJB 2.1
    • <activation-config>: general declaration of properties (e.g. substitutes message-selector, acknowledge-mode and subscription-durability in EJB 2.0)
    • <messaging-type>: javax.jms.MessageListener für JMS
    • <messaging-destination-type>: important for COnnector-Based beans (don't use JMS)


 public abstract class MDBExample implements MessageDrivenBean, MessageListener {
   public void ejbCreate() throws EJBException{
    ... // create Connection, Session, Queue
   public void onMessage(Message message){
    // if (message instanceof TextMessage){ ... }
   ... // setMessageDrivenContext(), ejbRemove()

MDB vs. Session & Entity Bean

  • Entity and Session Beans should not receive messages
  • impossible to write a session or entity bean that is driven by incoming messages
  • receive()-method blocks java threads